• Ushering in the Second Wave of Checkpoint Blockade Therapies
    Immune checkpoint blockade has emerged over the past decade as a useful therapeutic tool against many types of tumors. Checkpoint blockade therapies take advantage of the fact that many tumors are infiltrated by immune cells, but those cells are unable to effectively kill the tumor due to inhibitory signals that limit their function. By reversing inhibitory signals that block T cell functionality, checkpoint blockade therapy reactivates immune cells already in a tumor and allows them to resume their effector function1.
  • Defeating COVID-19: The Science Behind a New ELISA for COVID-19 Seroconversion Detection
    The recent and rapid spread of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has necessitated the development of new assays that are capable of detecting the presence of this virus in patient samples or evidence of recent infection. One strategy being developed are assays to detect the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patient sera.
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    BRD4: Epigenetic Regulator and Emerging Cancer Target
    Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is a transcriptional regulator that plays a key role in cancer, autoimmunity, and inflammatory diseases1,2. BRD4 was discovered as a protein bound to acetylated chromatin during cell cycle progression. In this way BRD4 maintains consistent gene expression during subsequent rounds of division, a phenomenon known as epigenetic memory or "bookmarking" for gene transcription2,7. BRD4 also plays a critical role in regulating differentiation and development2,4. In the absence of BRD4, bone marrow stem cells are unable to generate B and T cells2. BRD4 is required for the re-expression of stem cell genes during reprogramming of MEFs or B cells to induced pluripotent stem cells2, and also plays a role in osteoblast differentiation4. The role of BRD4 in cell cycle control and differentiation has made it an emerging therapeutic target for cancer and immune system pathologies.
  • Hypoxia Signaling: HIF1-alpha & HIF2-alpha Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies
    The hypoxic response pathway is triggered by low levels of oxygen in the cellular environment. Hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) is central to the hypoxic response. HIF exists as a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of an alpha and beta subunit. In mammals there are three HIF-alpha subunits, HIF1-alpha, HIF2-alpha, and HIF3-alpha, and one beta subunit, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). The overexpression of HIF1-alpha and HIF2-alpha is associated with poor survival rates for various cancers. Experimental and clinical evidence strongly suggests HIF1-alpha and HIF2-alpha influence tumor development and response to treatment. Because of this, there has been major interest in developing selective HIF inhibitors; but due to the complexity of the HIF pathway, the process has been challenging. Thus, future work for therapeutic targeting of the HIFs will require a better understanding of both the HIF1-alpha and HIF2-alpha pathways.
  • Upgrade Your T-Cell Marker Research With Bethyl Antibodies
    Rapid progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy is a result of advances in our understanding of immune marker expression, antigen presentation, and the cell-mediated immune response involving CD3+ T-lymphocytes. T-cells are crucial to the body’s immune response to cancer, both endogenously and following therapeutic intervention. A T-cell marker panel that can identify subsets of tumor-associated T-cells allows scientists to identify and target subpopulations of T-cells playing unique roles in the immune response against a tumor.
  • Exosomes - Lipid-based Extracellular Vesicles
    Exosomes are lipid-based extracellular vesicles. They are formed from the endosomal compartment, when endosomal vesicles fuse with the cell’s plasma membrane, releasing the endosome from the cell. Initial hypotheses about the function of exosomes were that they are part of the cellular recycling system, responsible for transporting waste out of the cell. They have also been described as playing an important role in cell-cell communication, where exosomes subsequently fuse with the plasma membrane of a target cell to transmit signals including proteins and RNA between cells1.
  • CD27: An Emerging Target for Cancer Immunotherapy
    Immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-(L)1, and CD27, are a common target of immunotherapies against solid tumors. Targeting these molecules leads to the (re)activation of an immune response against a tumor, typically by blocking an inhibitory signal coming into the immune cell from either tumor cells or suppressive immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. The most well-known and earliest targets of checkpoint immunotherapies, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 pathways, follow this mechanism and are known as checkpoint blockade immunotherapies. Immunotherapies that target CD27 function differently.
  • Targeting T regulatory cells in cancer immunotherapy with anti-CD73
    In the era of immunotherapy, a major focus of the field is to identify new targets that may improve the immune response to solid tumors. Recently, CD73 has been identified as a novel target for cancer immunotherapy. CD73, also known as ecto-5’-nucleotidase, is an enzyme that is involved in purinergic signaling1. CD73 is part of a conserved pathway in immune cells that begins with the activity of CD39 (also known as ENTPD1). Together, CD39 and CD73 are responsible for the breakdown of purines by immune cells. CD39 catalyzes the breakdown of ATP and ADP into AMP, and CD73 then converts AMP to adenosine. CD73 is the only known enzyme to have this function2. Both CD39 and CD73 are located at the cell surface and exert their enzymatic functions on extracellular adenosines3.